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1Where Does Botulinum Toxin Bind??
 The heavy (H) chain of the toxin binds selectively and irreversibly to high affinity receptors at the presynaptic surface of cholinergic neurones, and the toxin-receptor complex is taken up into the cell by endocytosis. The disulphide bond between the two chains is cleaved and the toxin escapes into the cytoplasm.
2How Does The Botulinum Toxin Affect The Release Of Neurotransmitters??
The toxin binds with high affinity to peripheral cholinergic nerve endings, such as those at the neuromuscular junction and in the autonomic nervous system, preventing the release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine .
3Which Part Of The Neuromuscular Junction Is Affected In Botulinum Toxin Poisoning?
Botulinum neurotoxin is the most potent biological toxin known, having a median lethal dose of 5–50 ng/kg body weight. The primary site of action of botulinum toxin is the cholinergic nerve terminal, where it blocks the release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
4Where In The Synapse Does Botulinum Toxin Type A Act??
Botulinum toxin acts at the neuromuscular junction (motor plaque) blocking the release and effects of acetylcholine (ACh), a neurotransmitter of both the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (SNP).
5What Does Botulinum Toxin Do To Neurotransmitters?
How botulinum toxin works. All the serotypes interfere with neural transmission by blocking the release of acetylcholine, which is the principal neurotransmitter at the neuromuscular junction.
6How Does Botulinum Toxin Inhibit Neurotransmitter Release?
Through their proteolytic action on these proteins, botulinum toxins prevent exocytosis, thereby inhibiting the release of acetylcholine. There are 7 serotypes of this toxin-A, B, C1, D, E, F, and G-and each cleaves a different intracellular protein or the same target at distinct bonds.
7How Does Botulinum Toxin Affect Activity At Synapses?
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are extremely potent toxins that specifically cleave SNARE proteins in peripheral synapses, preventing neurotransmitter release. Neuronal responses to BoNT intoxication are traditionally studied by quantifying SNARE protein cleavage in vitro or monitoring physiological paralysis in vivo.
8How Does Botulinum Toxin Affect The Nervous System?
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are metalloproteases which act on nerve terminals and cause a long-lasting inhibition of neurotransmitter release. BoNTs act by cleaving core proteins of the neurotransmitter release machinery, namely the SNARE (soluble NSF-attachment receptors) proteins.